# Different Python Operators

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By Dhiraj 14 March, 2019

Operators are symbols that carry out arithmetic or logical operations. In this tutorial, we will learn about the different operators available in Python. We will try to understand all the operations with suitable example and list down all the operators. Different operators that we will discussing here are

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Logical operators
• Identity operators
• Membership operators
• Bitwise operators

## Arithematic Operators

These operators are used to perform arithematic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc. Below are the list of common arithematic operators.

Operator Description Function Example
- Perform subtraction sub(a, b) a - b
* Perform multiplication mul(a, b) a * b
/ Perform Division. Result in float truediv(a, b) a / b
% Modulus operator. Returns the remainder mod(a, b) a % b
** Exponentiation.Left operand raised to the power of right pow(a, b) a ** b
// Floor division floordiv(a, b) a // b
Example
```a = 9

print(9 / 2)
print(9 // 2)
print(9 % 2)
print(9 ** 2)

```
Output
```4.5
1
4
81
```

## Assignment operators

Operator Example Equivatent To
= a = 5 a = 5
+= a += 5 a = a + 5
-= a -= 5 a = a - 5
*= a *= 5 a = a * 5
/= a /= 5 a = a / 5
%= a %= 5 a = a % 5
//= a //= 5 a = a // 5
**= a **= 5 a = a ** 5
&= a &= 5 a = a & 5
|= a |= 5 a = a | 5
^= a ^= 5 a = a ^ 5
>>= a >>= 5 a = a >> 5
<<= a <<= 5 a = a << 5

## Comparison operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two different variables. The result is always bool type. Below are the details:

Operator Description Function Example
== Equals to. True if left equals to right eq(a, b) a == b
> Greater than gt(a, b) a > b
< Less than lt(a, b) a < b
>= Greater than or equal to ge(a, b) a >= b
<= Less than or equal to le(a, b) a <= b

## Logical Operators

Logical operators are used with Boolean (logical) values.

Operator Description Example
and Returns True if both statements are true a < 5 and b > 2
or Returns True if one of the statements is true a < 5 or b > 2
not Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true not(a < 5 or b > 2)
Example
```a = 5
b = 3

print(a < 5 and b > 2)
print(a < 5 or b > 2)
print(not(a < 5 or b > 2))
print(5 > a > 2)
```
Output
```False
True
False
False
```

## Identity Operators

Check if two variables are located in the same memory location. is and is not are the identity operators in Python.

Operator Description Example
is Returns true if both variables are the same object a is b
is not Returns true if both variables are not the same object a is not b
Example
```a = 2
b = 2

c = 'John'
d = 'John'

e = [1, 2, 3]
f = [1, 2, 3]

print(a is not b)

print(c is d)

print(e is f)
```
Output
```False
True
False
```

## == and is operator in Python

== operator compares the value whereas is operator compares the memory reference. Hence, if two objects having same values then == returns true but that may not be the case with is operator.

```x = [1, 2, 3]
y = [1, 2, 3]

print(x == y)  # returns True
print(x is y)  # returns False

```

## Membership Operators

Membership operators are used to check if an object is present in any sequence such as string, list, tuple, set and dictionary

Operator Description Example
in Returns True if a an object is contained in a seqquence a in b
not in True if a an object is not contained in a seqquence a not in b
```a = [1, 2, 6]

print(1 in a)
print(2 not in a)

```
Output
```True
False
```

## Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators are used to compare binary numbers bit by bit.

Operator Description Function
& Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1 and_(a, b)
| OR. Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1 or_(a, b)
^ XOR. Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1 xor(a, b)
~ NOT.Inverts all the bits invert(a)
<< Zero fill left shift. Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off lshift(a, b)
>> Signed right shift. Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off rshift(a, b)

## Conclusion

In this tutorial, we will learnt about the different operators provided in Python such as Arithmetic, Assignment, Comparison, Logical, Identity, Membership and Bitwise operators.

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