1)   What is the difference between the QA and software testing?
The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the process to produce a quality of a product.
While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the final product and check the functionality of final product and to see whether the final product meets the user’s requirement.
2)   What is Testware in manual testing?
Testware is the subset of software, which helps in performing the testing of application. It is a term given to the combination of software application and utilities which is required for testing a software package.
3)   What is Test case in manual testing?
Test case is a specific term that is used to test a specific element. It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment and outputs.
4)   What is a 'USE' case and what does it include?
The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case. It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions.
5)   What is validation and verification in software testing?
In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans. Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walk through and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation.
6)   What is the difference between white box, black box, and gray box testing?
Black box testing is a testing strategy based solely on requirements and specifications. Black box testing requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation of the software being tested.
White box testing is a testing strategy based on internal paths, code structures, and implementation of the software being tested. White box testing generally requires detailed programming skills.
In gray box testing this we look into the "box" being tested just long enough to understand how it has been implemented. Then we close up the box and use our knowledge to choose more effective black box tests.
7)   Does an increase in testing always improve the project?
No an increase in testing does not always mean improvement of the product, company, or project. In real test scenarios only 20% of test plans are critical from a business angle. Running those critical test plans will assure that the testing is properly done. The following graph explains the impact of under testing and over testing. If you under test a system the number of defects will increase, but if you over test a system your cost of testing will increase. Even if your defects come down your cost of testing has gone up.
8)   What is difference between Master Test Plan and Test Plan?
1.Master Test Plan contains all the testing and risk involved area of the application where as Test case document contains test cases.
2.Master Test plan contain all the details of each and every individual tests to be run during the overall development of application whereas test plan describe the scope, approach, resources and schedule of performing test.
3.Master Test plan contain the description of every tests that is going to be performed on the application where as test plan only contain the description of few test cases. during the testing cycle like Unit test, System test, beta test etc
4.Master Test Plan is created for all large projects but when it is created for the small project then we called it as test plan.
9)   What is bug life cycle?
Bug Life Cycle, again is the various stages through which it goes after it's discovered. So once the Quality Assurance Engineer discovers the bug, it's marked as "New", then the concerned authority will assign it to the developer where the status of the bug changes to 'Assigned', once the bug is assigned it's either 'fixed' or 'rejected'. In both the cases, the QAE will verify the bug and mark it as 'reopen' (if not fixed properly) or 'closed' if it no longer exists.
10)   What is smoke testing and what is sanity?
What would happen if you turn on a newly brought TV and you get smoke coming out of it? Smoke testing is basically to ensure that the basic functionality of the product (in TV's case, it should be displaying video when turned on) works fine. So you'll identify the most basic test cases you need to execute and perform them.
Sanity testing is similar - which ensures that the system or product functions without any logical errors. If you are testing a calculator app; you may multiply a number by 9 and check whether the sum of the digits of the answer is divisible by 9.
11)   Mention the different types of software testing?
Integration testing and regression testing
White box and Black box testing
Alpha and Beta testing
Load testing and stress testing
12)   What is data driven testing?
Data driven testing is an automation testing part, which tests the output or input values. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. It is performed when the values are changing by the time.
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